Tuesday, November 7, 2017


PBL: Volcanoes
My Model

This is me and my buddy Pinenga's model of a volcano. These are the things me and my buddy used to make our model: Newspaper,Glass jar,paper roll,paint,cardboard and stones.

Have you ever wondered how volcanoes/ puia pākai erupt or how they are formed ?This is a report that is going to tell you how volcanoes erupt ,how they are formed and what impact they have on the world. Did you know that the tallest volcano now is Mauna Kea. Mauna Kea last erupted on the 15th of April 1984. Also in pompeii the lost city a volcano erupted and covered/ropi the whole area and some villagers around pompeii. They were mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice.

What are volcanoes
Volcanoes are formed when Magma from the earth's upper mantle works its way to the surface. When it gets to the surface it erupts and you will see Lava and ash coming out of the top of the volcano. Volcanoes erupt when pressure from below the volcano increases. Then the magma burst through the crust. Now the volcano will erupt. Why volcanoes erupt is because of the tectonic plates they can move outwards or inwards. The magma is under the tectonic plates so when they move outwards the magma comes through the gap. When magma is on the surface it is called lava. There are four layers of the earth. The inner core , outer core, mantle and the crust.

The Earth's layers, showing the Inner and Outer Core, the Mantle, and Crust. Credit: discovermagazine.com
The layers of the earth

Volcanic Rocks

Color: Black
How It Is Formed: Obsidian is volcanic glass formed as an igneous rock. It is produced when lava cools rapidly with minimal crystal.

Facts: Obsidian can only form near active volcanoes.
When obsidian breaks, the fractures are very sharp which is why it was used for tools.
Color: Light coloured
How It Is Formed: The materials cool so fast that it can't get its crystal form.

Facts: Pumice is short for Pumicite

The size of pumice can be
tiny dust or pieces that are the size of a house.
Group: Volcanic and igneous
Color: White
How It Is Formed: Rhyolite is a igneous volcanic rock.The mineral is usually quartz

Facts: Eruptions not only produce Rhyolite, but volcanoes can also produce Pumice, Obsidian, and other rocks to.

What impact volcanoes have on the world we live in ?
Volcanoes can be positive and negative in different ways. This table will show all of the positive and negative things about volcanoes

Farming : When a farm is close to a volcano it is good because the volcanoes gives the plants nutrients for it to grow.
Heating : volcanoes are good for heating because the steam can be used for turning into electricity through some pipes. Like geothermal heating in Taupo.
Metals : when a volcano erupts the lava is made of some useful metals, such as Aluminum eg cans,window frames,foils,airplane parts,Iron eg roofs,tools,buildings,vehicles, Magnesium eg iron,aluminum,air crafts,phones,computers and other electronic components and batteries. Titanium eg air crafts,spacecrafts and missiles because it has the ability to withstand extreme temperature.
Stones/Rock : when volcanoes erupt they can produce stones and rocks like obsidian and  pumice they are Volcanic rocks.  

Destruction/Damage : When volcanoes erupt they can destroy houses,trees and more.
Harmful : When a volcano erupts there is lava and ash. Ash is harmful because it carries poisonous gases in the air. It affects humans,plants and animals.lava is harmful because it can start fires and also death.
Pollution : Magma contains gases which cause most volcanic eruptions.
They are caused by
Lahar,lava,gases and ash

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